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urolithiasis, kidney anomalies, flexible uretero-renoscopy
Congenital abnormalities of the urinary tract comprise a variety of structural and functional malformations, these can range from mild asymptomatic to complex and life threatening. Renal anomalies predispose individuals to many complications, including recurrent urinary tract infections, stones formation, and impaired renal function. The knowledge of those anatomical variations is essential to urologists and trainees to help make correct diagnosis and offer appropriate treatment. Our aim is to define the role and evaluate the outcomes of flexible uretero-renoscopy (fURS) as an accepted treatment modality for urinary stone disease in two dystopic kidneys managed in our hospital.
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